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Dr. Emiliano Hudtohan

Educator, Business Writer, Industry Expert and Entrepreneur

Spiritually – driven management in the 21st century: a literature review

Spiritually-driven management in the 21st century: a literature review
Dr. Emiliano T. Hudtohan, EdD
For publication in San Beda College Graduate School
Research and Development Journal
May-December 2015
July 27, 2015 version

spirituality in corporate management

Abstract

Based on the review of related literature on spirituality and religiosity at the workplace, three spiritualities emerged: Maharlikhan spirituality, devotional spirituality, and global spirituality.  The author conceptualized a spirituality framework based on Browning and Kagan’s formula on the combination of two elements, which produces a third phenomenon. The convergence of the three spiritualities resulted to: folk spirituality, social-activist spirituality, and personalist non-denominational spirituality.  The study made use of heuristic research in presenting his personal spiritual insights culled from his experience with Lasallian educational management for almost six decades as student, administrator and faculty.  Historiography was used to review in retrospect the development of Lasallian education in relation to its business-liberal arts program. Consequently, the historical events helped create a prospect for a spiritually-driven management framework. Thus, De La Salle University Management Organization Department, where the writer spent his last 9 years of academic engagement, was chosen as a test case in reviewing the spiritual dimensions of its vision, mission, core values and expected Lasallian graduate attributes (ELGA).

Key words: spirituality, humanistic education, management, social formation, social teachings, theology, vortex and babaylans.

Introduction
The rise of spirituality as context in the workplace is a signal that humanistic management, which is a reaction against a materialistic business worldview, has progressed towards a value-based and faith-based management. Spiritually-driven management has been practiced as purpose driven leadership and meaningfulness of work. It is extensively discussed in empirical studies as spirituality in the workplace (SW) and spirituality and religiosity in the workplace (SRW). This paper is a sequel to an earlier article, Spirituality in the Workplace: Quo Vadis? (Hudtohan, 2014),

Historically, humanistic management came about as a reaction to an extreme pursuit of management for wealth through bottom line profit, characterized by business in the industrial revolution period.  It was the Marxist-socialist movement that mirrored the ‘inhumanity’ of business.  It was the social doctrine of the Catholic Church that declared and continues to uphold ‘human’ dignity of the workforce, operationally responsible for business products and services and bottom line profit.

But Marxist-socialists and capitalists continue to play ping-pong on a materialistic business management platform. On the other hand, the Catholic Church continues to espouse the dignity of the human person in business. The idea that key players in business are spiritual beings seems to be anathema for many.  On the contrary I believe that the problem of business management is spiritual. And from a macro perspective, I join Walsch’s (2014, p.220) observation that “The problem of humanity today is a spiritual problem.”

Objectives
The first objective of this paper is to trace the movement of humanistic management to a spirituality-based management.  To accomplish this, a retrospective approach to management and spirituality in the workplace provides a historical appreciation on the convergence of three spirituality concepts as lens in viewing business management: Maharlikan spirituality, Catholic devotional spirituality and 21st century global spirituality.
Second, I wish to engage are the faculty, students and administrators of Catholic business schools in the Philippines who are attached to the spirituality of their respective founders. I believe spirituality in business is not a popular topic to write about and yet great concern has been raised in terms of ethical conduct and the moral implications of such behavior.

Third, the purpose of this review is to articulate my academic experience with De La Salle University, Manila from 1961 as a liberal arts and education student up to my retirement as faculty member of DLSU management organization department in 2014.

Fourth, it is an attempt, after almost 6 decades of Lasallian experience, to integrate pre-Spanish Filipino values with Western management concepts and principles in MOD classroom teaching and COSCA service learning. I did not relate the spiritual and religious program of the De La Salle University Campus Ministry, since I never had any significant engagement with that sector since 1961 as undergraduate student and more recently as MOD faculty.

Methods
The methods used in the paper are inter-disciplinary.  The paper makes use of heuristic research, historical research and storytelling by qualitatively narrating and exploring the concept related to spiritually-driven management.

Heuristic research attempted to discover the nature and meaning of phenomenon through internal self-search, exploration, and discovery (Moustakas & Douglass, 1985). I explored and pursued a creative journey that began with my personal experience as an axiologist and ultimately uncovered the direction of spiritually in the workplace (Hudtohan, 2014) as driver of management practice. It involved a self-search, self-dialogue and self-discovery until I arrived at my own inner awareness, meaning and inspiration regarding spirituality.  I attempted to discover the nature and meaning of spirituality as a phenomenon through self-reflection, exploration, and elucidation of my experiences.

The historical method (Bloch, 1962) provided a retrospect-prospect perspective (Gonzales & Tirol, 1984; Hudtohan, 2005) on spirituality in the workplace.  A historical review of related literature on SR and SRW (Geigel, 2012; Karakas, 2010) provided empirical support in conceptualizing a spiritually-driven management framework.  While retrogression in statistics predicts a future result, qualitative historical retrospection creates a direction for future prospect for change and innovation, which ultimately calls for creative fidelity (Johnston, 2000; Marcel, 1964).

Heuristic and historical methods were used as tracers to my life-long research on religious and values formation (Hudtohan, 2014, 2005, 1973). My self-search began with my Lasallian education in 1957, deepened by my formation as a Christian Brother (1961-78), and culminated with an academic doctoral degree in 2005. My corporate engagement (1982-2005) as training director of Malayan Insurance and human development consultant of Metrobank grounded me to the rabid corporate pursuit of Smithsonian profitability. Over the past decade, my engagement at the De La Salle school of business tunneled my vision from humanistic management towards a spiritually-driven management. I was challenged to explore 21st century spirituality in a business environment.

Storytelling (Pillans, 2014, pp.10-11; Brown, 2012, p.252) gets our personal message across which message can help the reader’s “internal perspective and in cases where choices are unconscious, it can provide a new viewpoint that is more conscious” (Simons, 2001). Samuels and Lane (2003) assert that “Restorying reality is…changing a person’s belief system and instilling hope and spirit.”  In restorying a spiritually-driven management, I experienced catharsis and healing.

This story is based on my experience in the De La Salle educational network as grade school guidance counselor (1967), high school teacher, principal and director (1967-78), college professor (1988-91), and collegiate, masteral and doctoral lecturer (2005-2014). Corporately, I was training and development consultant of Metrobank (1991-2003) and training director of Malayan Insurance (1982-1988).

In summary, this paper is a qualitative research, which narrates my story that integrates my experience as an axiologist immersed in business ethics and social responsibility in the graduate school of business.  A heuristic-historical approach allowed me to articulate my spiritual viewpoint as experienced in corporate and academic practice for over a period of almost 5 decades.

The Road to Social Activism

Christian education
I traced the humanistic education at DLSU through my experience as grade school guidance counselor 1976 until 1978 when it was transferred to De La Salle Zobel, Ayala, Alabang. Had the university retained the grade school and high school departments at its Taft campus and had there been a vertical integration in the 70s, the implementation of K-12 would have been less cumbersome.  Significantly, the evolution of devotional-activism to humanistic social-activism could have been also vertically integrated.  Spiritual-activism (1941-1983) at De La Salle was driven by evangelization patterned after the Baltimore catechism propagated by the Confraternity of Christian Doctrine.  By 1983, De La Salle University entered into a phase of social activism. It was driven by a Lasallian concern for the poor, a calling of the Philippine Church to give preferential option for the poor and the Roman Catholic Church’s call for social justice.

In transition, the social concern of De La Salle University may have soft-pedaled the need for devotional spiritual practices that anchor the social activist to be of service society. For me, personal spiritual development remains the foundational core of social responsibility and corporate social responsibility in the 21st century.

Historically, the school of business of De La Salle University came almost a decade after it was founded in 1911.  Maison du De La Salle became De La Salle College when it was incorporated in 1912 and it served as residencia of the Brothers’ Community and student boarders and escuela for Filipino boys. Administratively, the director of the Brothers Community was primarily responsible for both the spiritual life of the Brothers, the students and the faculty. Fundamentally, the spiritual leadership was in the hands of the director who managed both the Brothers and the school.

In 1920, it offered a two-year commercial course, five years ahead of the courses in humanities.  For this reason, De La Salle has been identified as primarily a business school. In 1925 it offered courses for an Associate in Art, Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts. In 1930, the college was authorized to confer the degrees of Bachelor of Science in Education and Master of Science in Education. These non-business courses attest to the fact that it was balancing the business interest of the middle class with classical education in liberal arts.  By 1961, it was offering a five-year double degree: Liberal Arts-Commerce and Liberal Arts-Education.  The humanistic education was then enshrined. St. Irenaeus (185 AD) said, “Man fully alive is the glory of God.”  And St. John Baptist De La Salle on the feast of St. Andrew, the apostle, said, “It is in the company of Jesus that you work for the glory of God” (Meditations, 78, 2).

When the nine pioneering Christian Brothers arrived in the Philippines in 1911, they had “a clear understanding of their primary mission in establishing a new foundation: To give a Christian education to boys.” (Baldwin, 1982)  The mission “to give Christian education to boys” cited in the Bull of Approbation of Pope Benedict XIII in 1724  specified that the Brothers “should make it their chief care to teach…those things that pertain to a good and Christian life… they chiefly imbue their minds with the precepts of Christianity and the Gospel” (Common Rules and Constitution).

Humanistic religious education
Banayad and Carillo of the Institute of Catechetics in Manila developed the HEA in the 70’s.  The approach was learner-centered and experiential, significantly veering away from the kerygmatic, Gospel-centered catechism.  The approach was gleaned from conferences in Bangkok (1962), Katigondo (1964), Manila (1967) and Medellin (1968) which advocated an experiential learning anchored to an anthropocentric theology (Clarke, 1970; Ordoñez, 1970; Erdozain, 1970; Moran, 1967).

The grade schools of De La Salle-Manila and La Salle Green Hills became the breeding ground for the human evocative approach (HEA) in teaching religion (Caluag, 1972; Carillo, 1976; Hudtohan, 1972, 1976; Surratos, 1988 Fallarme’s (1983) noted that the HEA in teaching religion shared similar techniques in nurturing children’s potentials, giving importance to their own experience and helping them relate with respect to others at PWU-JASMS).

As the HEA gained academic acceptability, Hudtohan (1972) suggested using it as basis of integration of religion class and guidance at De La Salle Grade School. Erik Erikson’s (1968) epigenetic principle of personality development and spirituality indicate that each stage of human development is part and parcel of spiritual development. Fowler’s (1981) stages of faith show how the spiritual life of an individual grows over a period of time until a universal faith is attained upon maturity,  Caluag (1980) did a study on the Humanization and Christianization in  five La Salle schools in the Philippines, addressing the spiritual needs of the youth undergoing Catholic religious education.

Tomacita Endaya, Br. Andelino Manual Castillo FSC Education Foundation (BAMCREF) director (1983-1996), introduced the catechists to HEA teaching catechism in the public schools.   In 1997, new catechism, Modyul sa Katisismo at Kagandahang Asal series aligned with HEA published under guidance of Br. Andrew Gonzalez, FSC and Director Louie Lacson. A humanistic religious education has found its way into the public school classrooms.

Social Formation
In 1983, the Center for Social Concern and Action (COSCA) was established by Br. Andrew Gonzalez, FSC and Juan Miquel Luz to make Lasallian education relevant and responsive to the needs of Philippine society and prepare its students to become socially responsible. This started a new era of institutionalized social-activism, a development that eventually eroded the spiritual-activism that earlier focused on catechetical evangelization through the Sodality of Mary, student catechists, and professional catechists.  But by 2014, the professional catechists of Br. Manuel Castillo, FSC established in 1952, was terminated.

The shift from evangelization to community involvement is fundamentally based upon a realization that the existential need of the poor is not spiritual.  This movement is theologically supported by liberation theology (Gutierrez, 1973) that influenced many Catholic institutions to focus on social action and social justice among the oppressed. Most significantly, after Vatican Council II, a shift from theocentric to anthropocentric theology expressed humanistic maxims like: Christianity peaks in the fullness of being truly human (Schleck, 1968, p.103).

The Catholic Action (CA) was primarily an apostolate of the laity who were considered ministerial extension of the clergy for: 1. religious conquest of the people, 2. perfect and methodical formation of Christians, 3. spiritual regeneration of Christian society through piety and action, 4. expansion and defense of the Catholic faith and Christian morality, and 5. spreading of Christ’s kingdom on earth and the common good of human society (PCM II: 1997).

The CA stampita prescribed a devotional spirituality, requiring every member to make a pledge that “It is my primary duty to strive for personal holiness.  To accomplish this: I shall hear Mass daily if possible; pray the rosary daily; receive the sacraments at least once a week; make frequent visits to the Blessed Sacrament; spend at least 15 minutes a day for spiritual reading and meditation; and every year attend spiritual retreat and periodic recollection” (Hernandez, c1960).At the onset of Vatican Council II in 1965, spirituality for personal sanctification was upgraded to a spiritual social activitism.

In 1994, De La Salle University mission statement declared that it considered itself a dynamic resource of the Church and Nation in the process of national transformation.  The social activism of the university was aligned with its “solidarity with the poor.” Further, in 2001 its vision-mission emphasized the creation “new knowledge for human development and social transformation” and “building a just, peaceful, stable and progressive Filipino nation.” (DLSU, 2003).

By this time, the university enunciated the ‘human and social’ dimensions of development.  While it updated the original religio, mores, and cultura values within the framework of human development, the emphasis on the social dimension became detrimental to the religious, and more so the spiritual, aspect of human-social development of the students and faculty.

Service learning exuberance under DLSU Center for Social Concern dates may consider its roots from two Lasalian organizations: The Sodality of the Blessed Virgin Mary and the Student Catholic Action. Both of whom have a history that goes back to pre-war days of De La Salle College. On June 28, 1941 De La Salle College Br. Flannan Paul, FSC met with the members of Sodality of the Blessed Virgin Mary to prepare them to teach catechism in a public school in Fort McKinley (Hudtohan, 2005).

By 2011, DLSU Community Engagement (CE) conceptualized by COSCA advocated (a) active collaboration (b) that builds on the resources, skills, and expertise, and knowledge of the campus and community (c) to improve the quality of life in communities (d) in a manner that is consistent with the campus mission. (AUN, 2011)

The DLSU CE Framework became a guide for all Lasallians to anchor themselves to the DLSU vision and mission with the current social realities using a preferential option for the poor lens. The CE framework follows a progression cycle from awareness and partnership building to actual community engagement leading towards personal and societal change: socially aware and active Lasallians; empowered, sustainable, and disaster resilient communities (Primer on the DLSU CE Framework, 2011).

Tupas (2012) building on COSCA’s social engagement framework, he proposed Vickers, McCarthy and Harris (2004) service learning framework and Brown and Keast (2003) citizen-government engagement and Stevenson and Choung (2010) TQM for DLSU Ramon V. del Rosario College of Business . He precisely enumerated the various curricular subjects in business as content for service learning. His study formally framed the social engagement of DLSU, especially its college of business in terms of sharing academic business content with the community. From classroom learning regarding Catholic social teachings, corporate social responsibility, Lasallian leadership and business ethics, the faculty and students are now being moved to social activism through community engagement.

The corporate social responsibility and governance, Lasallian leadership and business ethics classes were engaged in service learning (Hudtohan, 2013; 2014) provided the undergraduate and MBA students a sense of community service and social engagement. The service learning co-curricular program in coordination with COSCA is a major shift from the spiritual activism of the 60s at the De La Salle Taft grade school, high school and collegiate levels.

The social focus of service learning has somehow lessened the personal relationship between the faculty and students in terms of coaching and mentoring them as they journey not only in social service engagements but more importantly in their spiritual formation. Lost in transition amidst the whirlwind of activities is time for personal reflection after community engagement. By sheer number of 40 plus students under one faculty member, the reflection paper is not enough and the one-time community engagement is not enough either.  I am proposing a spiritually-driven management to address a sustainable spiritual development.

The Road to a Spirituality-driven Management

Challenge to Catholic Business Institutions
The challenge to the De La Salle University Management and Organization Department is to move forward its humanistic management advocacy to that of a spiritually-driven management.  Its inclusion of faith-based management and Integral human development in the curriculum and extracurricular fora is an excellent springboard to pursue a spiritually-driven management as a business perspective.  It is in line with MOD’s tagline: Bridging faith and management practice.

In Philippine context, DLSU like all other Catholic business schools must renew its understanding of faith and spirituality beyond the bounds of its religious tradition to specifically create a management spirituality that is inclusive of all other spirituality and religiosity (Rahner, 1968; Ebner, 1977; Hudtohan, 2014).  It may be driven internally by the Maharlikan kalooban (Reyes, 2013; Mercado, 1994; de Mesa, 1987; Enriquez, 1992) an inner consciousness based on a personal reading of the signs of the time and a belief that God still speaks (Moran, 1967). In the context of revelation and discerning God’s message, this spirituality need not be dictated and compliant to hierarchical and clerical authority (Helmick, 2014). Teaching globalization without addressing the corporate “heart and soul” of the individual limits and therefore deprives the business students an in-depth perspective on how to deal with the realities of the business world (Kilmann, 2001; Livermore, 2010).

What is spiritual?
According to Rentschler (2006, p.29), spiritual has at least four major usages; it refers 1. To the highest of any developmental lines transrational cognition, transpersonal self-identity (Wilber, 1980); 2. A separate developmental line itself like that of Fowler’s (1981) faith development; 3. A state or peak experience (Maslow, 1964) like nature mysticism (Chopra, 1997; Cowley, 2009; York, 2003),  mysticism (Johnston, 1970), mystagogy (Rahner, 1972) and mystery present (Ebner, 1977); and 4. A particular attitude or orientation like openness, wisdom or compassion, which can be present at virtually any state or stage (Wilber, 2000).

A spiritually-driven management makes use of any or all of the four usages of Rentschler in addition to the socio-cultural and theological dimensions as foundational concepts of this study.  A management that is spiritually-driven means that the manager and corporate leader is powered by a highest level of personal development which is spiritual in fulfilling the management functions of planning, leading, organizing and controlling for relational and productive excellence in the workplace.

What is spirituality?
An open definition of spirituality is “people’s multiform search for meaning interconnecting them with all living beings and to God or Ultimate Reality. Within this definition there is room for differing views, for spiritualities with and without God and for an ethics of dialogue” (European SPES Institute, n.d.).

In their management textbook, Dyck and Neubert (2011, p.490) define spirituality as “a state or quality of a heightened sensitivity to one’s human or transcendental spirit.”  Western authors use the word ‘meaning’ to imply a transcendent value which directly or indirectly implies spirituality (Tolle, 2005; Ulrich, 2012; Kilmann, 2001; Hicks & Hicks, 2010; Pape, 2014; Craig & Snook, 2014). Rick Warren (2002) is more direct in weaving purpose as meaningful experience of God. Fifty years ago, Van Kaam (1964, p.42) had noted that “Ultimate meaning…is grounded in himself, others, and the ultimate Other.”

In 2015, Unilever in London commissioned Authentic Leadership Institute (2014) to design their Purpose Drives Leadership Program 2020, a workshop intended to “make sustainable living commonplace in the UK and Ireland” (Radjou & Prabhu, 2015). Unilever’s 2020 workshop considers purpose as very crucial at the workplace and the spirituality of leaders finds meaning in accomplishing corporate purpose (JHudtohan, personal communication, 2015). Julian (2014) in his book, God is my CEO, cites the faith-work experience of 20 executive leaders.  He used the Bible as point of reference in grounding the principles and values of the chief executive officers in America.

According to Aumunn (1985, p.3) Christian spirituality in the Catholic tradition is about “the lives and teachings of men and women who have reached a high degree of sanctity throughout the ages…[showing that] the perfection of charity can be attained by any Christian in any state of life.”   Downey (1997) opines that “Christian spirituality…is the Christian Life itself lived in and through the presence and power of the Holy Spirit. It concerns absolutely every dimension of life, mind and body, intimacy and sexuality, work and leisure, economic accountability and political responsibility, domestic life and civic duty, the rising costs of health care and the plight of the poor and wounded both at home and abroad. Absolutely every dimension of life is to be integrated and transformed by the presence and power of the Holy Spirit.”

From a psycho-spiritual point of view, spirituality considered as wholeness and wholeness is equated to holiness because human and spiritual development are intertwined (Erickson, 1968; Shea, 2004; Caluag, 1980).  Friel (n.d.) says, spirituality can be defined as a “fully human phenomenon, and it is a phenomenon of the fully human.”

Geigle’s (2012, pp.18-23) review of related literature on workplace spirituality listed 70 studies from Europe, America, Middle East, Africa and Asia.  In Asia, studies from China, India, Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia, and Sri Langka were mentioned but none from the Philippines. He also reported that Oswick (2009) who compared “the two 10 year periods ending in 1998 and 2008…found the number of books on workplace spirituality increased from 17 to 55 and the journal articles increased from 40 to 192” (Geigle, p.14.)

Karakas’ (2010, p.2) reviewed 140 related studies and listed 70 definitions of spirituality at work.  He argued that spirituality provides: 1. A human resource perspective, 2. As philosophical perspective, and 3. An interpersonal perspective that drives organization performance.  Spirituality becomes a driver for employee well-being, sense of meaning and purpose of work, and sense of community and interconnectedness (Karakas, 2010, p.11-24). The impact of spirituality on human resource is that it “enhances the general well-being of the employee by increasing their morale, commitment and productivity and by reducing stress, burnt-out and workaholism” (Karakas, p.12).  Spirituality as a philosophical perspective “provides employees and managers a deeper sense of meaning and purpose at work” (Karakas, p.16). Spirituality provides employees a sense of community and connectedness; increasing their attachment, loyalty, and belonging to the organization.

Kouzes and Posner (2003, p.25) argue that emotionally, spiritually, and socially barren workplaces can turn around to become abundant workplaces by providing solutions that incorporate spirituality.  The ultimate result is spirited workplaces of the 21st century that are engaged with passion, alive with meaning and connected with compassion.

Benefiel, Fry and Geigle (2012, p.184) assert that “Spirituality and religiosity in the workplace (SWR) is an emerging area of scholarly inquiry that has an atypical history in that it has its roots in philosophy and psychology of religion and spirituality.” They likewise cited Mitroff and Denton’s (1999) landmark study where “SRW has begun to experience some convergence, both theoretically and empirically, on the importance of an inner life or spiritual practice in fostering a vision and a set of altruistic values that satisfy fundamental spiritual needs for calling and community, which in turn positively influence important individuals and organizational outcomes.”

A plethora of studies on spirituality in the workplace (SW) and religiosity in the workplace (RW) led me to combined studies on spirituality and religiosity in the workplace (SRW). But Geigle (2012, p.17) observed that “There is little empirical literature concerning mystical/religious constructs many use in their definitions, such as transcendence and interconnection with non-physical entities.”  He also cites the following research gap questions: 1. Is it possible to develop spirituality in employees? 2. What is the relationship between secular spirituality and religious spirituality? 3. How can work spirituality constructs differ from related constructs in organization behavior, organization development, and positive psychology?

Employees are spiritual beings
Studies in management have concluded that the employee is spiritual and that spiritually-driven leaders  (Pruzan & Miller, 2003;  Miller & Miller, 2002) make a difference in the workplace. Empirical evidence based on studies on spirituality in the workplace and spirituality-religiosity in the workplace has established that the corporation is manned by spiritual beings, no longer machines of the industrial age, no longer labor for production, no longer human beings with rights but spiritual beings with human corporate activities.

Maschke, Preziosi and Harrington (2008, p.11) concluded that “spirituality exists in corporations, simply because all employees are spiritual beings.” They affirm Teilhard de Chardin (1957) who much earlier said that we are not human beings with spiritual activities but spiritual beings with human activities. The human spiritual development in Chardin’s view is powered by the same universal laws that are operative in the material world. He wrote, “[E]verything is the sum of the past [and] nothing is comprehensible except through its history. Nature is the equivalent of ‘becoming’, self-creation: this is the view which experience irresistibly leads us. … There is nothing, not even the human soul, the highest spiritual manifestation we know of, that does not come within this universal law” (De Chardin, 1920).

That employees are spiritual is a giant leap from a medieval paradigm which declared that kings have divine rights. Walsch’s 21st century paradigm considers every human being as divine. The acceptance of employees as spiritual beings forms a basis for a spiritually-driven management.

Further, before Teilhard de Chardin died in 1955, he announced that we are spiritual beings with human activities. Neale Donald Walsch (2014, p.160) courageously announced that “human beings are divine, each having the all the divine qualities within them.” After more than four decades, he echoes Rahner (1966, p.116) and Ebner’s (1977, p.98) pronouncement that “All people are divine.”

Scope and Influence of Three Spiritualities

Based on my review of related literature on spirituality, I classified three spiritual tenets that influenced contemporary Catholic believers in the Philippines.  These are A. Maharlikhan spirituality, B. Devotional spirituality and C. global spirituality as shown in a linear, historical development in Figure 1.

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