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Dr. Emiliano Hudtohan

Educator, Business Writer, Industry Expert and Entrepreneur

Leadership, Communication and Personality

Leadership, Communication and Personality

Dr. Emiliano T. Hudtohan, EdD

May 6, 2016

A talk delivered at the seminar on Personality Development Towards Global Competitiveness

 of the Women Engineer’s Network,

Affiliate of PTC-Asean Federation of Engineering Organization

Technological Institute of the Philippines

Aurora Blvd, Quezon City


I congratulate the officers and organizers of the Women Engineers’ Network for gathering the engineers today and for the opportunity to be part of the discussion on Personality Development Towards Global Competitiveness.  It is no accident that I get invited by a women’s group for I am a feminist and an advocate of leadershift from male to female governance.  It is about time: When women were drummers, there was peace, healing and nurturance.  But when men got hold of the drums, they marched to the beat of the drums to go to war.  And ever since, the world is at war. I know the United Nations is looking for the first Secretary General who is a woman.  Ladies, please accept the challenge.

This is a great century to be alive. It is great to be here in the Philippines, because in three days’ time, we will make a decision on who will lead us to kaginhawaan. I do not mention the opposite for I believe what I say binds.  What I think will materialize. Aside from elections on May 9, on of the hot topics in the sports world is the rise of women’s volleyball.  And the finals that ended on April 30 showed how two rivals fought to the finish.  Michael Tan, President of the University of the Philippines noted it right.  The rise of this feminine sport where the energy expressed on court was entirely different from those of the male players; it be volleyball or basketball and declared volleyball a new Filipino sport (Tan, Inquirer May 4, 2016).

I say this as one of the indicators of the 21st century as a century of feminine energy. The controversy that Manny Pacquiao got into was when he made comment on LGBT.  The rise of the third gender is real.  Historically, the third gender was part of our tradition prior to the Spanish colonization.  The Royal Kingdom of the Maharlikans was governed by the sultans and rajahs as masculine force but the barangays were taken cared of by the babaylans and the asugs.  The asugs were male babaylans who exercised the same functions of healing, teaching, and worship as the babaylans did.

Bong Nadera (2000) in Mujer Indegina cites 13 ethnic names of babaylans throughout the Philippines.  Again, the babaylans exercise power through the use of metaphysical energy in contrast the physical power of the sultans and rajahs of the rule of the Shri Vidjaja Empire and the Madjapahit Empire.

My talk presents our reality today from three perspectives: the physical, metaphysical and spiritual dimensions of Life.  I know the engineers are anchored on the physical realities of the world.  My proposition is: What if the engineers explore the dimension of metaphysics and the spiritual nature of all things real?

The topic Leadership, Communication and Personality as elements of global competitiveness must be seen from a personal development vis-à-vis global environment of the 21st century.  I tell you the future direction of leadership is advancing the notion of quantum leadership, which by the way is based quantum theory in metaphysics and is diametrically different from Cartesian-Newtonian physics, which is fundamentally the basis of engineering and mathematics.  I tell you the future of the concept of personality is advancing the notion of the spirit as distinct from the traditional view provided by mainstream psychology based primarily on the science of Rene Descartes. The 21st century puts premium on spirituality as the core of personality as expressed by Teilhard de Chardin (1955) who said that: We are not human beings with spiritual activities, but we are spiritual beings with human activities.

So, the challenge for the practicing lady engineers and the graduating engineers is to expand their mind set in order to ‘function’ well in the world of work, the world of reality. My proposition is for you to have a strategic plan on how to continue to explore these leadership and spirituality as critical aspects of the Self as a professional engineer.  With your personality can you have “a place stand” and as leaders can you “move the world?”  Archimedes can be your inspiration because he was a complete person.  Google describes him as a mathematician, philosopher, scientist and engineer. To do this, it means that you are on a journey to a life-long learning.  Formally, a masteral program awaits you and after that a doctoral program.  And if ever you decide to do it outside the academe, you can continually search and research your quest for knowledge through personal study.

Today’s technology allows you, more than ever compared to my generation in the 60s, to explore knowledge at your fingertips. Massive online open courses (MOOC) are available in the internet if you want a certificate. Informal education and learning on your own can be through: Google, the world’s most popular search engine whose mission is mission is to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful,; social media like FaceBook, is a free social networking website which is available in 37 different languages and its presence technology allows members to see which contacts are online and chat;  YouTube  is a free video-hosting website that allows members to store and serve video content and share contents; and Twitter is a free social networking microblogging service that allows members to broadcast their tweets.

Technology and social media when properly used for educational and learning purposes, these tools become a power source for personal empowerment. The new leadership and new empowered personality can then communicate to a variety of audiences through personal, corporate and social media.  Then, in the words of Archimedes you have a fulcrum moving the physical, metaphysical and spiritual world.  My talk discusses leadership, personality and communication within the physical, metaphysical and spiritual dimensions.


Physical World

The physical world is seen as the natural world, the world of nature.  Isaac Newton discovered the natural law of gravity; he demonstrated that what goes up must come down. But today metaphysics declares that what goes up need not come down. Rene Descartes explored the natural qualities of being human; he established the maxim: I think therefore, I am.  But Antonio Damasio (1994) declared Descartes’ error: “[T]he abyssal separation between body and mind, between the sizable, dimensioned, mechanically operated,  infinitely divisible body stuff…and the unsizable undimensioned, un-pushpullable, nondivisible mind stuff…Specifically, the separation of the most refined operations of the mind from the structure of operation of a biological organism.

Earlier, a Greek physicist Archimedes originated the maxi: Give me a fulcrum and I will move the earth.  Give me the place to stand, and I shall move the earth.  This assertion demonstrates the principle of the lever; as quoted by Pappus of Alexandria, Synagoge, Book VIII, c. AD 340; and in Chiliades (12th century) by John Tzetzes, II.130. From these sources, “Give me a place to stand, and I shall move the world” is the most commonly quoted translations.

But Archimedes of Syracuse (c. 287 BC – c. 212 BC) was not only an engineer, but was also a mathematician, scientist and philosopher. (https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Archimedes). Interestingly, my PhD engineering student from De La Salle Araneta University posted in FB that: Science without engineering is mere philosophy.  I say the science of engineering with philosophy is being truly a science of engineering for humanity. The challenge posed to you lady engineers is to cut across discipline and embrace philosophy and the other social sciences to personal and global development.

None the less, we must acknowledge the engineering feats of our time simply overwhelm the human mind.  No doubt the science of physics has moved the world from nowhere to somewhere. We sent man to the moon; we peeped at the planet Mars; we looked at the structure of atoms 50 years ago and we now know how quarks behave.  And the cell phones we enjoy the benefits (and the curse?) of technology.


Metaphysical World

What is above the natural is the supernatural world and what is above the physical is metaphysical reality. Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature of existence, being and the world. Arguably, metaphysics is the foundation of philosophy: Aristotle calls it “first philosophy” or “wisdom”, and it is the subject that deals with “first causes and the principles of things” (Baker, 1999; Lewis, 2012; Funk, 2001).

But metaphysics today has evolved into a new science of quantum physics or quantum mechanics (QM, or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental branch of physics concerned with processes atoms, photons and quarks. In such processes, said to be quantized, the action has been observed to be only in integer multiples of the Planck constant, which is utterly inexplicable in classical physics.

Albert Einstein appears to be the link or bridge between physics and quantum physics when he formulated the relativity theory.  He predicted that the space-time around Earth would be not only warped but also twisted by the planet’s rotation. Gravity Probe B proved he is correct. (http://www.space.com/17661-theory-general-relativity.html#sthash.72OeBEsW.dpuf).  His formula: Energy is equal to Mass times the speed of Light (squared).  Mass is easily understood as something physical that occupies space and has weight; Light has a debatable quality of being a wave or particle.  Traditionally translated, mass is matter and light is form; applied to humans: body and soul.  I ask where your soul is.  In humor, I point to the sole of my shoes, playing pun on the word ‘soul’.  Of course, the soul is present from the sole of my feet to the tip of my hair; from the outer limits of my skin to my inner organs and the very marrow of my bones.


Quantum Organization

The concept of quantum organization is based on a new paradigm of metaphysics as a New Science (Kilmann, 2006; Dator, Pratt, & Sea, 2006; Deardoff & Williams, 2006; Wheatley, 2006; Chopra, 2008; Karakas, 2009; Beck, 2014). This is in contrast to the Cartesian-Newtonian physical science.

Hookes (c2011) graphically explains the two paradigms in Figure 1. He says, “This rooted-tree graph represents the partition of the world into its constituent people particles, as well as the resulting hierarchical political and social structures of the bourgeois state, and that of its main economic players, the corporations.”

He continues, “As we can see in the quantum theory (QT) paradigm, the circle on the right is a topological folding of the circle on the left. The nodes can be considered as problems-solvers within a Problem-Solving Intelligent network, that is, a PSI-net or Ψ-net7. A ‘problem-solver’ node may be an individual, group of individuals, or else some intelligent software/hardware. In this case of the Ψ-net, they can be thought of as connected by an information channel with a given bandwidth. The original set is partitioned into sub-cycles (or subsets) and further into sub-sub-cycles (sub-subsets) and so on. In such structures information about the activity at each node, the collective activity of each subset (or sub-subsets) or the collective activity of the complete set of nodes can be accessed by each individual node. It just requires sufficient bandwidth. With modern technology this is in principle almost infinite (actually terabits/sec and increasing…). The important point is that relationship of each part can be consciously related to the whole. This helps to solve the problem of the alienation of the isolated problem-solver in the tree-like hierarchies of bureaucratized reason (Weber, 1978), as illustrated by the left-hand CN-net. In the latter, the problem-solver usually does not understand how her sub-sub-problem relates to the main problem or the other problem solving activities. Only those in the top layer have an overview.”

Cartesian Newtonian Paradigm

Political Economy

Hookes (c2011) explains quantum theory as an alternative to Cartesian-Newtonian paradigm.  He says, “What is understood by only a very small number of the critics of modern corporate capitalism is that modern physics, and, specifically, quantum theory, provides an alternative paradigm, or framework of thinking, that can help demolish that of Cartesian-Newtonianism (CN) in the politico-socio-economic sphere as well as that in physics itself.”

In Figure 1, CN on the left side is a capitalist view of the political economy while the one on the left is a QT view of the political economy. Notice that Marxian is used and not Marxist because this is a new interpretation of Marx’s thoughts in quantum science and not necessarily dialectical philosophy. According to Hookes (c2011, p, 13), “The quantum paradigm (on the right], represents the account of the global capitalist productive process given by Marxian political economy. In this picture we can see that the labor and value produced at each node are connected to all other nodes through the global market exchange system to create both a global (universal) labor and global (universal) value system. Labor carried out locally becomes de-localized; value created locally becomes de-localized through the global market system of capital.”

I think the lesson here is that the Marxian political economy offers a social economic paradigm which allows the clustering of similar labor and products in mining, so that it becomes an efficient structure for global enterprise.  It must be pointed out that the QT paradigm is non-hierarchal, non-alienating, cooperative and democratic.  Cartesian-Newtonian paradigm and the New Science of metaphysics are extensively discussed by Whitely in Leadership and the New Science, Beck’s Finding Your Way in a Wild New World, Deepak Chopra’s Grace and Freedom, and Karakas’ New Paradigms in Organization Development: Positivity, Spirituality, and Complexity.

In many ways, QT paradigm supports the social innovation (Godin, 2012) which promotes structural reforms (economic, political and social) that will benefit the many (traditionally termed as common good).  Here, Hookes is very selective in using the term Marxian, as opposed to Marxist which has a socialist and even worse implying communist ideology.

In the Philippines, socialism raises the specter of communism (Murphy, 2015), which is an ongoing concern in provincial areas where insurgency continues to be a problem.  In the business and marketing sector, socialist inclination of a capitalist is now labeled as democratization of the market, or the practice of social marketing.  There is much acceptability in the business sector when it comes to corporate social responsibility, which is now enshrined in business school curriculum.  Social innovation from the corporate sector in the Philippines is opening up towards democratizing business as the trend for social entrepreneurship gains good ground.  In fact, CSR is now moving towards corporate shared value (CSV) with the community and towards corporate social initiatives (CSI).  The concept of democratization and socialism in business is converging without Marxian, Marxist, socialist, and communist undertones.

Quantum Leadership

Deardorff and Williams (2006) say that within the quantum organization are three tiers or levels of interaction which are the self, the motions of Fluidity and the leader. The intersection of all three of these elements is the quantum node where synergy is created to produce innovation and novel, new ideas.

They argue that synergy leadership is a process where the interaction of two or more agents or forces combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects. In effect, there is an evolving phenomenon that occurs when individuals work together in mutually enhancing ways to achieve success by inspiring one another to set and accomplish both personal goals and a group vision. They further noted that “The easiest area to describe but hardest area to recognize in the quantum organization is the Self. The Self of the leader is ultimately the key to the success of the quantum organization model.

Thus, one’s personality, energy, spirit, quirks and experiences comprise the uniqueness of the Self.  What is needed is a measurement rubric, tool or instrument that can create a quantum measurement capturing these features. This measurement will determine impact of the Self on quantum organization.  The Self will have the ability to accept and move with chaos and dynamic change can only be channeled constructively by utilizing the Self’s ability to accept accountability for the interactions; communication and dynamic ability make transformations in a chaos filled word.

Laszlo (2006) announced that we have already reached the chaos point and Braden (2009) mathematically showed that 2012 was the beginning of a new age based on the Mayan calendar.  Page (2008) averred that in 2012 Mother Galactica is entering into a black hole, where change and rebirth will be experienced thereafter.  The AEC’s birth in 2015 is an opportunity to make a breakthrough for future survival.  Wheatley (2006) suggests that the leader of the 21st century must take cognizance of the new science and pay attention to chaos theory.  Chaos causes disequilibrium and disorder but equilibrium which stabilizes can lead to complacency and stagnation. Chaos theory has been identified by Sardar and Abrans (2004) with ancient wisdom of Chinese yin-yang creative energy, 8th century Greek theogomy of how the first chaos came to be up until modern concept of randomness and unpredictability in the universe (Mapes, 2003; Taleb, 2010) came about.

Kilmann (2006) observed that to succeed in the new millennium a holistic perspective will enable members and their organizations to (1) conceptually recognize the fluid interconnections surrounding the globe, (2) consciously address the interconnectedness of problems in comprehensive ways, and (3) purposely behave in a way that promotes the meaningfulness and coevolution of life and nature throughout the world and the expanding universe.  For him, seeing, thinking, and behaving in a new holistic mode requires a personal revolution in self-aware consciousness because we live in an interconnected world yet suffer from acute isolation. By applying the eight tracks cited in his book, it is possible to create quantum organizations and thereby achieve success, happiness, and meaning.

Kilmann asserts that effective leadership in a quantum organization requires new skills and behaviors from a managerial perspective (leader-manager) as well as a certain personal value-system and discipline (Leader- Self). Each level of leadership is also responsible for creating and developing the necessary behavior patterns at the next level – their direct reports. The Leaders ability to develop others to reach their ultimate level of value and effectiveness is somewhat limited (since it requires the individual to consciously and systematically improve their own performance).

As in physics and the theory of quantum mechanics; quantum leadership provides a path through the unpredictable, the non-linear and the highly complex nature of organizations. To accomplish this requires the ability to create a relationship and atmosphere of transformational leadership and dynamic leader-follower. Porter O’Grady (1997) observed that: “Leaders issue from a number of places in the system and play as divergent a role as their places in the system require” (p. 18). In quantum leadership, a non-traditional management and a new paradigm of advanced multistream organizational management emphasizes a relational well-being. Dyck and Neubert (2012) assert that managers and leaders should not only be engaged and productive, they must also serve the stakeholders’ wellbeing, nurture mutually beneficial relationships, and focus on long term community interests and overall wellbeing (p,63).

Peter Block (2008) defined stewardship as holding something in trust for another.  In quantum organizations leaders are expected to be stewards of the physical and intellectual capital, talents, and value-adding relationships of the organization. This is a new form of leadership. “We are experiencing a rapid shift in many businesses and not-for profit organizations – away from the more traditional autocratic and hierarchical models of leadership and toward servant-leadership” (Spears, 2010). He said a servant-leadership needs: 1. Listening, 2. Empathy, 3. Healing for transformation and integration,  4. Awareness,  5. Persuasion, 6. Conceptualization, 7. Foresight,  8. Stewardship,  9. Commitment to the growth of people,  and 10. Building community.

Network Leadership

In the Age of Technology,  a quantum leader needs to be a network leader. In the new work environment driven by technology, leadership is challenged to take on a new role. Network Leadership is a role that “involves establishing strong network performance by building, aligning, and enabling broad networks both internal and external to the organization. Network leadership is more about influence than control; it is also a more indirect than direct form of leadership, requiring leaders to create a work environment based on autonomy, empowerment, trust, sharing, and collaboration.” (CEB, 2015, p.11).

The Network Leaders will have to display key Behaviors and competencies critical to effective network leadership by being able to: 1. Empower Staff  by pushing autonomy and empowerment downward through the organization. 2. Motivate others  by getting the staff to achieve goals. 3. Build team spirit by addressing issues disrupting team (network) functioning. 4. Listen by encouraging others to share their views. 5. Consult others by encouraging team (network) to become involved in the decision-making process. 6. Communicate proactively by sharing information widely with others. 6. Networking by encouraging and assisting others to develop people link networks. 7. Manage conflict by facilitating the resolution of conflict between and among others. 8. Test assumptions and investigate by  questioning and challenging assumptions. 10. Encourage and support organizational learning by encouraging a culture of continuous improvement. 11. Innovate by questioning traditional assumptions and producing new ideas, approaches, and insights. 12. Seek and introduce change by encouraging others to change inefficient work practices. 12. Have vision by encouraging other people to think about the organization’s long-term potential. 13. Adapt by adjusting to change positively. 14. Accept new ideas by supporting change initiatives. 15. Deal with ambiguity by  tolerating conditions of uncertainty (CEB, p.15).

According to the Corporate Executive Board Company (CEB, 2013). “Network leadership sets a higher bar for leaders, requiring them to create a work climate that supports autonomy and collaboration. In this empowered environment, the leader must take on the role of an active enabler, creating  conditions to accelerate individual and group decision making, rather than directing others to follow a particular path. Leaders will guide employees on how to work more effectively in their networks instead of directing what they do in their work. To create this work environment, leaders must spend more time on network building, and they must behave differently than they did in the past to allow networks to develop and operate autonomously. These requirements have proven to be a common challenge, as 70% of surveyed organizations believe their leaders lack the flexibility to effectively create and lead networks.”

To effectively manage networks and networked employees, and realize the benefits of network performance, leaders must focus on three broad activities, they suggest that: 1. Leaders must help others build and connect to networks..  2. Leaders must align and direct the network and 3. Leaders must energize and enable the network (CEB, 2013, p.20)



According to Allport (1961, p. 28), “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristics behavior and though.” Weinberg and Gould (1999) define it as “The characteristics or blend of characteristics that make a person unique.”

Gordon Allport (1897–1967) organized traits into a hierarchy of three levels: cardinal traits, central traits, and secondary traits. Using a statistical process known as factor analysis, Raymond Cattell (1905–1998) generated sixteen dimensions of human personality traits; known as the 16PF. Hans Eysenck (1916–1997) focused on temperament—innate, genetically based personality differences. He believed personality is largely governed by biology, and he advanced three specific personality dimensions: extroversion vs. introversion and neuroticism vs. stability and psychoticism vs. socialization (Boundless.com, n.d.)

Raymond Cattell’s (1988) Trait Theory lists 171 characteristics, and  got down to 16 main personality traits that he determined defined our personalities—characteristics like warmth, dominance and apprehension. According to Cattell, we all have these main traits, and our personalities are determined by the degree to which each is present. The resulting test, the 16PF assessment method, became one of the most commonly used personality rating tools.

Eysenck’s (1966) Three. Still unsatisfied with the extensive list of possible personality traits, Hans Eysenck would narrow the list of characteristics to three main areas. Originally, he said everyone could be defined by just two rubrics—Introversion-Extroversion and Neuroticism-Emotional Stability. According to Eysenck the personality of an individual is related to the functioning of his autonomic nervous system (ANS). Thus, personality is dependent on the balance between excitation and inhibition of the nervous system. Individuals become neurotic if his ANS responds too quickly to stress (McLeod, 2014).

Over the years of study and research argue that Allport’s approach was too inclusive, and Eysenck’s far too simplified. But psychologists would continue to come upon similar, recurring theories and character traits, such that there are a handful that have become commonly accepted. One widely accepted scale on which to rate people would be Introversion vs. Extroversion. While they vary, of course, between psychologists, many have settled upon five key personality traits (Soto & Jackson, 2015).

This theory is called the Big Five, or some call it OCEAN, an acronym for openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism. The early versions of trait theory have these five traits cited repeatedly, particularly introversion and neuroticism. The theory encompasses all of the other, more minor traits within these five.

For personality and careerDarius Foroux (2015) has 25 reminders: 1. Struggle Is Good; 2. Don’t Complain; 3. Spend Time With People You Love; 4. Don’t Start A Relationship If You’re Not In Love; 5. Exercise Daily; 6. Keep A Journal; 7. Be Grateful; 8. Don’t Care About What People Think; 9.Take More Risks; 10. Pick An Industry, Not A Job; 11. Lead The Way; 12. Money Isn’t Important ; 13. Be Nice; 14. Learn Every Day; 15. Rest Before You Are Tired; 16. Don’t Judge; 17. Think About Others; 18. Give Without Expecting Something In Return; 19. There’s No End Game; 20. Enjoy Small Things; 21. Don’t Take Yourself So Seriously; 22. Don’t Blame People; 23. Create Something; 24. Never Look Back Too Long; 25. Take Action.

What is being suggested is personality development.  But each persona is unique.  As Geil Browning (2006) puts it, we a product of Nature (DNA)  and Nurture (social environment: school, church, corporate).  You and you alone can decide who you are.  And it is a choice.


Dyck & Neubert (2011) sees communication as “The process of transferring information by using meaningful symbols so that a message is understood by others.”  Terry and Franklin (1982) define it as “An art of developing and attaining understanding between people; a process of exchanging information and feelings between 2 or more people.”  Luckmann (2005) avers that it is “A skill that professionals from other cultures learn about the beliefs and values of different cultural groups, recognize the barriers to transcultural communication, and practice a variety of techniques to come across. “

According to Pinckaers (2015), “Communication techniques have developed incredibly in little less than a century. Yet we have to admit that what is being communicated does not always reach a particularly high intellectual level. Technology can transmit the best and the worst indifferently.”  Communication Technology: People over 35 use the internet as a tool; those under 35 see the internet as an extension of themselves.  He observes the following:

“A. Positive Developments:  None of us can do without it: Its benefits are extraordinary.  Makes the world smaller, Communication is more efficient, Information is cheaper, etc.  Negative Fallout:  A Price to be paid: Our Digital Culture is rewiring us mentally—and while at the beginning we saw only positive, there is a sense that we are paying a price for it.   Speed and Acceleration to make Decisions without Reflection: creates conditions to make reckless decisions.  When the decisions are right, they are powerful, but when they are wrong they suffer. B. Negative Effects. Technology can make us forget important things we know about life since it can  upplanting/Replacing Deeply Human Activities.  (human acts [virtue]such as “deeper reflection,” relationships, community, and virtue.  Deep Reflection:  “Retrievers of Information,” rather than “Reflectors of WISDOM”  We are prone to be Jet Skiers of Information rather than Divers of Wisdom.  C. Disorder: I-disorder , Internet Addiction Disorder which reveals the addictive characteristics of the digital medium.   “The computer is like electronic cocaine,” fueling cycles of mania followed by depressive stretches. Internet Addiction Disorder: Twitter and Narcissism: “meformers,” those who pass along interesting facts about only themselves? Facebook Depression:  Or that heavy use of Facebook has been linked to mood swings among some teenagers?  Mobile devices and obsessive-compulsive disorders: and how constantly checking our wireless mobile devices (he calls them W.M.D.’s, a great acronym) can lead to obsessive-compulsive disorder.  Attention Deficit Disorders: Others look at how technology addiction can lead to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. D. The Challenge: Technology and Time—if time is not technical, or productive it is wasted time—we know doubt. Technology and Space:  our technological devices can put you everywhere but here. They can connect us to all sorts of things on the outside, but distract us from what is “inside” what is here in this room and what is inside the soul.  My Precious: the more power the machine, the more difficult to disconnect—from cell phone, to Android/I-Phone. Great Leaders—Presence—being here: Great Leaders have great presence—because they are here and not somewhere else.  What does being here mean? We are People of the Screen: (Plato’s Allegory of the Cave—watching the screen.  People have all but lost the art of reading, thinking, and conversation due to an overexposure to flashing images, meandering chatrooms, and Facebook friendship (Pinckaers, 2015).

Dimensions of Communication

Listening is 45 percent; speaking is 30 percent, reading is 16 percent and writing is 9 percent.  Thus, a leader who wishes to be effective in communication, it is clear that speaking and listening are the two important aspects of communication that must be addressed and therefore gain speaking and listening skills. They comprise 75 percent of communication.

Dimensions of Communication

A new role of the sender in communication is to be an energy source that entertains and emits a message so that the receiver is attracted, gives attention, and accepts the message.  My formula is 3eS3a centers on energy.  If we apply Einstein’s theory, then the sender must be a source of energy to be able to send a meaningful message.  Content with mental and emotional meaning will attract attention and gain faster acceptance.  Energy has force and this force must be communicated to the receiver.  When that force reaches the receiver, the receiver cannot help but react physically from the start, but it deepens to an understanding and that understanding is reinforced by a positive feeling when the message is proper crafted and communicated.


Communication sender as energy source

Figure 3: Gerry Williams’ new communication percentages

According to Williams (2005) in his book, Resolving Issues, modern communication is now 56 percent body language, 37 percent voice tone and only 7 percent content.  Body language plus voice tone comprises 93 percent of communication.  Now we understand why power dressing is important.  It is external but it sends the correct message right away if one is appropriately dressed for the event or occasion.  Now we understand why we must be physically fit and attractive as source of the message.  Now we understand why the voice tone that comes from the spirit and the heart of the speaker reverberates to the audience and automatic bonding takes place between the speaker and the listener.  No wonder Duterte is having a landslide in communication campaign.

Spiritual World

What is spirituality? An open definition of spirituality is “people’s multiform search for meaning interconnecting them with all living beings and to God or Ultimate Reality. Within this definition there is room for differing views, for spiritualities with and without God and for an ethics of dialogue” (European SPES Institute, n.d.).

Dyck and Neubert (2011, p.490) define spirituality as “a state or quality of a heightened sensitivity to one’s human or transcendental spirit.”  Western authors use the word ‘meaning’ to imply a transcendent value which directly or indirectly implies spirituality (Tolle, 2005; Ulrich, 2012; Kilmann, 2001; Hicks & Hicks, 2010; Pape, 2014; Craig & Snook, 2014). Warren (2002) is more direct in weaving purpose as meaningful experience of God. Fifty years ago, Van Kaam (1964, p.42) noted that “Ultimate meaning…is grounded in [man] himself, others, and the ultimate Other.”

According to Aumunn (1985, p.3) Christian spirituality in the Catholic tradition is about “the lives and teachings of men and women who have reached a high degree of sanctity throughout the ages…[that] the perfection of charity can be attained by any Christian in any state of life.” Downey (1997) opines that “Christian spirituality…is the Christian Life itself lived in and through the presence and power of the Holy Spirit. It concerns absolutely every dimension of life, mind and body, intimacy and sexuality, work and leisure, economic accountability and political responsibility, domestic life and civic duty, the rising costs of health care and the plight of the poor and wounded both at home and abroad. Absolutely every dimension of life is to be integrated and transformed by the presence and power of the Holy Spirit.”

From a psycho-spiritual point of view, spirituality considered as wholeness and wholeness is equated to holiness because human and spiritual development is intertwined (Erickson, 1968; Shea, 2004; Caluag, 1980).  Friel (n.d.) says, spirituality can be defined as a “fully human phenomenon, and it is a phenomenon of the fully human.”

Employees are spiritual beings

Studies in management have concluded that employees are spiritual and that spiritually-driven leaders (Pruzan & Miller, 2003; Miller & Miller, 2002) make a difference in the workplace. Empirical evidence based on studies on spirituality in the workplace and spirituality-religiosity in the workplace has established that the corporation is manned by spiritual beings, no longer machines of the industrial age, no longer labor for production, and no longer human beings with rights but spiritual beings with human corporate activities.

Maschke, Preziosi and Harrington (2008, p.11) concluded that “spirituality exists in corporations, simply because all employees are spiritual beings.” They affirmed Teilhard de Chardin (1957) who much earlier said that we are not human beings with spiritual activities but spiritual beings with human activities. To De Chardin, the human-spiritual development in Chardin’s view is powered by the same universal laws that are operative in the material world. He wrote, “[E]verything is the sum of the past [and] nothing is comprehensible except through its history. Nature is the equivalent of ‘becoming’, self-creation: this is the view which experience irresistibly leads us…There is nothing, not even the human soul, the highest spiritual manifestation we know of, that does not come within this universal law” (De Chardin, 1920).

Further, before Teilhard de Chardin died in 1955, he announced that we are spiritual beings with human activities. Neale Donald Walsch (2014, p.160) courageously announced that “human beings are divine, each having the all the divine qualities within them.” Finally, after more than four decades, he echoes Rahner (1966) and Ebner’s (1977) pronouncement that “All people are divine.”

Based on my review of related literature on spirituality, I classified three spiritual tenets that influenced contemporary Catholic believers in the Philippines.  These are: A. Maharlikhan spirituality, B. Devotional spirituality and C. global spirituality as shown in a linear, historical development in Figure 4. In my discussion I relocate spirituality as the seat of our individual personality.  Thus, in the succeeding presentations, spirituality in this paper is interchangeable with personality.

Maharlican global personality

  1. Personality framework derived from three generational spiritualities.  Adapted from a

spiritually-driven management perspective (Hudtohan, 2015).


Maharlikhan spirituality

Maharlikan ethnic personality was in existence before 1478 when the islands belonged to the Royal Kingdom of Maharlikha (www.rumormillnews.com/pdfs/The-Untold-Story-Kingdom-of-Maharlik hans.pdf) under the Srivijaya empire that ruled from 683-1286 (Munoz, 2006) and the Majapahit Empire that ruled from 1293-1500 (www.rumormillnew.com/pdf/The-untold-story-of-Maharlikans.pdf).  According to the Nagarakretagama (Desawarñana, 1365), the Majapahit empire stretched from Sumatra to New Guinea and it included present day Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, southern Thailand, Sulu Archipelago, Manila, and East Timor (http://dbpedia.org/resource/ Majapahit).

The Laguna Plate dated 900 AD (Postma, 1992) had an inscription that condoned the debt of the descendants of Namwaran (926.4 grams of gold) which was granted by the chief of Tondo in Manila and the authorities of Paila, Binwangan and Pulilan in Luzon. The words were a mixture of Sanskrit, Old Malay, Old Javanese and Old Tagalog.  This establishes the Maharlikan connection with the Srivijaya empire and Majapahit empire.

This is one of the reasons why Philippine national hero, Dr. Jose Rizal, is referred to as “the pride of the Malay race” and “the Great Malayan” (Trillana III, 2014). In fact, Malaysian leader Anwar Ibrahim has recognized Rizal as the “greatest Malayan” and an “Asian Renaissance Man” (Palatino, 2013).  Our Malayan and Maharlikan personality has been exemplified by Dr. Jose Rizal.  Together with Rizal, I cannot help but challenge our lady engineers to be the modern version of Maria Clara in the tradition of the babaylans.

In 1478, the Moslems came to power and in 1521, through Ferdinand Magellan; Spain colonized the island up until 1898.  But prior to the Moslem and Spanish conquest, the Maharlikans were ruled by the rajahs and the babaylans were already ministering to the spiritual life of the barangays through song, dance, healing, worship, and metaphysical connectivity with Bathala.

Nona (2013, p.8) in her research, Song of the Babaylans, retrieved and reclaimed “the ancient indigenous sounds that heal, and which have been passed from generation to generation through the present and remaining babaylans – the ritualists, oralists, and healers.”  Cacayan (2005) narrated her personal encounters with the babaylans of Mindanao and their sacred tradition of worship and spirituality through dance. She concluded that the spirituality of the babaylan is wholeness.

Velando (2005) reported a babaylan art exhibit at the Kennel’s Center Commuter Art Gallery in New York City. It was noted that the babaylan knows all things; that all people and all existence are connected; and this connection is our ethnic pakikipagkapwa. Villariba (2006) cited the relevance of the babaylans in the 21st century as priestess, healer, sage and seer.  According to her, the babaylan lives and breathes the Divine Source because “I Dios egga nittam nganun.”  God is in all of us, as found in Mangurug, Ibanag creed and Ba-diw Ibaloi chants. She also cited the role of the babaylan in the context of contemporary justice and peace issues in the Philippines, reminiscent of the participation of the babaylans in Philippine revolution. Melencio (2013) acknowledged them as spiritual and political leadership of the babaylans who, due to Spanish persecution, eventually participated in Philippine revolution.

Vergara (2011) observed that biblical references were used to demonize the babaylans.  He cited the derogatory Spanish words that referred to the babaylans as las viejas (old women), sacerdotisas del demonio (demon’s priestesses), hechicheras (sorceresses) and aniteras (priestesses using anito). Veneracion (1998) noted that the Spanish priests instituted the beaterio as a convent haven for Yndias in their effort to suppress and eventually replace the babaylans

Cruz (2002) theorized that the babaylans eventually entered the fold of Christianity and became beatas. Salazar observed, “[T]hese babaylans became part of the colonial society…as church women tasked with organizing and heading processions…who will assist the priests in their services at the altar” (Salazar, 1999, p.19)

Geremia-Lachica (2012) cited the takeover of the Asogs (male babaylans) in Panay. Kobak and Gutierrez (2002) noted in the book of Alcinas (1668) that asog means effeminate and its Bisayan synonyms are bayug or bantut. It also refers to “a man who behaves like a woman and dresses as a woman. Alcina showed that the office of the priest in ancient times was held by the asogs or effeminate men eventually became a male babaylans (Kobak & Gutierrez, 2002, p.489 & p.155).

Alcina’s (1668) Historia de las islas e indios de Bisayas describe 17th century Filipino spirituality under the leadership of the babaylans and asogs.  Maharlikan culture then was declared non-Christian based on Catholic doctrines.  The Jesuit evangelizers attempted to use the word diwata in reference to ‘true God.’  But the political strength of the Dominicans and the Augustinians in early Christianization of the Philippines blocked this early inculturation of Filipino concepts within the Catholic theology and spirituality.

Contemporary Filipinos “are spirit-oriented…[they] have a deep-seated belief in the supernatural and in all kinds of spirits dwelling in individual persons, places and things…Filipinos continue to invoke the spirits in various undertakings.” (Catechism for Filipino Catholics, 2002, p.15).

Filipino theologians, sociologists and anthropologist have done enormous researches in understanding the ABC of indigenous Filipino culture and Catholic paradigm, where A is Maharlikan ethnicity, B is Colonial Catholicism and C is the result of A and B factors. However, C identified in this paper a folk personality no longer faithful to dogmatic tradition of the Roman Catholic Church.  Filipino theologians tried to retrieve the lost pre-Spanish cultural tradition but they never succeeded in presenting the imago dei of the Maharlikan period. The effort to reconcile culture with Catholic dogmas ended with views that made Catholic theology dominant. Since then, Filipino personality has been described as dual Filipino-Christian split-level spirituality (Bulatao, 1966), folk-Catholicism (Belita, 2006), and inculturation of pre-Spanish indigenous values and Catholicism (Ramos, 2015; Reyes, 2013; De Mesa, 2003; Miranda, 1987; Mercado, 1975).

In all these discourses the babaylan personality, from the point of view of mainstream Roman Catholicism, was declared pagan. Thus, the 21st imago dei of a Filipino was greatly shaped by an overpowering ecclesiastical hierarchy whose spirituality conforms to the dogma, moral, and worship prescribed by the Roman Catholic Church. For more than 400 years Catholicism has theologically and practically obliterated the Maharlikhan spirituality.

Given the current clerical and authority-centered governance of the Catholic Church (Helmick, 2014), the Mahalikhan personality vis-a-vis current devotional Catholic personality has a minimal chance to be mainstream, unless the crisis of confidence in the Catholic Church snowballs into a Copernican revolution (Hicks, 1987).

Devotional spirituality

The Catholic Church in the Philippines and the Catholic Church in Rome have articulated the importance integrating local cultural values with the universal goals of Christianity. The outcome of this glocal initiative is devotional personality.

The Catechism for Filipino Catholics (CBCP, 1997, p. 416) quotes the National Catechetical Directory for the Philippines (1984) which declares that the ordinary Filipino Catholic “knows Catholic doctrinal truth and moral values [which] are learned through…devotional practices.” The Second Provincial Council of Manila (1996, p.157) states that lay formation “refers to the particular spirituality of the lay person which needs to be developed …so that he or she might properly fulfill his/her functions. The spirituality to be formed should…seek to respond to the call to holiness (PCP II). The spirituality should have “a distinctly Filipino character…living out of traditional values like pakikipagkapwa-tao, pakikisama, pakikiramdam, utang na loob, lakas ng loob, hiya, bayanihan, etc.” (PCM II).

The Compendium of Social Doctrine of the Church (2004, p.335) states that “The lay faithful are called to cultivate an authentic lay spirituality by which they are reborn as new men and women, both sanctified and sanctifiers, immersed in the mystery of God and inserted in society.”  As such, they contribute “to the sanctification of the world, as from within like leaven, by fulfilling their own particular duties.  Thus, especially by the witness of their own life…they must manifest Christ to others” (Lumen Gentium, 78)

Devotional personality is church-mandated rooted in the believer’s concept of imago dei (man as image of God) in accordance with her/his religious affiliation to an institutional church. Teloar (2005) in a collection of papers on theological anthropology, reported that the ecclesial traditions of the Orthodox Church view on soteriology (doctrine of salvation) as ‘deification’ where humans participate in the divine fellowship and commune, which is based on creation in the image of God. He concluded that in theological anthropology, salvation is “understood not so much as theosis (deification) but as anthroposis: our becoming more fully and authentically human as our relationships participate in the divine koinonia” (Teloar, 2005, p.3). The World Council of Churches on theological anthropology (Teloar, 2005) in Australia affirmed the humanistic interpretation of God’s salvific action in Christ’s redemptive act which has been espoused for the past four decades (Rahner, 1966, 1968; Endorsain, 1970; Ordonez, 1970; Schleck, 1968; Ebner, 1975 & 1977).

The imago dei in the Philippines was nurtured by the Catholic-Protestant tradition during the colonial period (1521-1946).  In 1593, Doctrina Cristiana was published and it became the first manual of hermeneutics that introduced to the Maharlikan personality the fundamentals of religious belief based on Catholic dogma, morals, and worship. The early Jesuit evangelizers attempted to use the word diwata in reference to ‘true God’ but the theological influence of the Dominicans and the Augustinians successfully blocked this inculturation of Filipino concepts within the Catholic theology and spirituality (Alcinas, 1668). Forever lost is the imago dei of the Maharlikhan Bathala who created Malakas and Maganda persona nestled in the bamboo nodes. Eugenio’s (2001) collection of folkloric literature cites the myth of Maharlikhan creation in Hiligaynon which has parallel versions in other Filipino dialects (Belita, 2006, p.111).

The massive presence of religious orders during the evangelization period brought about distinct Catholic spiritualities based on the founders of the respective religious orders in the Philippines. Thus, we still have a personality based on the Augustinians vita apostolica [living alone but in a community] that dates back to the monastic West of 4th century; the Dominicans of the 13th century carried a “doctrinal spirituality and apostolic spirituality” assiduously based on the sacred teachings of the Church; and the Jesuits post-Tridentine devotion moderna spirituality Ignatius of Loyola’s 1548 spiritual exercises (Aumunn, 1985). These religious orders created a Filipino personality based on their congregational vision of who the child of God is.

Devotional personality is founded on a theology of supplication (Walsch, 2014); relying heavily on the intercessory power of a third party that links the supplicant with God. This practice in the Catholic Church is manifested by the statues and images of Jesus, the Blessed Virgin and an array of saints whose special intercessions are invoked through novena prayers, either in private or in community. In particular, Wright (1999, pp. iii-iv) published Lasallian Prayers in a University Setting, making available formula prayers seeking, among others, the intercession of 11 Lasallian saints and blessed for students and teachers in the classroom.

Catholics schools propagate the personality of their respective founders: Agustinian La Consolacion College, Benedictine San Beda College and St. Scholastica’s College, Dominican University of Santo Tomas, Ignatian Ateneo de Manila University, Lasallian De La Salle University, Escrivan University of Asia and the Pacific,  and  Millerettian Assumption College to name a few.  Vatican II has mandated the renewal of these religious orders to capture the spirit of the time. But daily, at regular intervals, Catholic schools continue a devotional practice with a short prayer and ends by invoking the name of their respective saint and everyone responds, “Pray for us.” Under the banner of the Catholic Educational Association of the Philippines, devotional spirituality among Catholic schools, colleges and universities is systematically practiced. Catholic school personality is developed according to the spiritual ideals of the respective founder-saint of that school.

Global Personality

Lynch (2007) introduced a new strain of personality based on progressive spirituality in the 21st century. He also introduced a variation of pantheism, which traditionally has been identified by the Roman Catholic hierarchy as worship of nature.  Pan(en)theism, according to Lynch “promotes sacralization of nature as the site of divine presence and activity in the cosmos – and the sacralization of the self, for the same reasons” (p.11). He rewrites pantheism as pan(en)theism to veer away from worship in nature identified historically with paganism.

He says, “The emphasis on the ineffability of this divine presence leads advocates to progressive spirituality to regard all constructive religious traditions as containing insights that can be valuable for encountering the divine.  But at the same time, progressive spirituality is highly critical of aspects of these traditions which are patriarchal and offer a ‘top-down’ notion of a God, separate from the cosmos, who seeks to order human in an authoritative way” (Lynch, p.11).

This commentary of Lynch affirms what Helmick (2014) observed that the root of crisis of confidence in the Catholic Church is due to the stranglehold of clericalism and authoritarianism that control the spiritual life of faithful and the church hierarchy.  A local personality of the Filipino is strangled and shaped by a global force of a dogmatic Catholic Church. He asks, “Can we indeed have a Church without this aura of clericalism and authoritarianism?” (Helmick, 2014, p.13).  Kellerman (2012, p.73) made a similar observation: “In the last decade, the Catholic Church endured a crisis in confidence.  To have witnessed church officials from the pope down, succumb to the demands of the people has been to witness the diminution of political influence.”

The 21st personality has been driven by a spirituality with: “1. The desire to find new ways of religious thinking and new resources for spiritual growth and well-being that truly connects with people’s beliefs, values and experience in modern, liberal societies. 2. Various initiatives to develop a spirituality that is not bound up with patriarchal beliefs and structures, and which can be relevant and liberating resource for women. 3. Attempts to reconcile religion with contemporary scientific knowledge and in particular in attempts to ground spirituality in a contemporary scientific cosmology, and 4. Moves to develop a spirituality which reflects a healthy understating of the relationship of humanity to the wider natural order and which motivates constructive action to prevent ecological catastrophe ” (Lynch, 2007, pp. 23-35).

Global personality is supported theologically by Ebner’s (1977) human race church, Rahner’s (1969) anonymous Christian, Schlette’s (1966) great religion as ordinary way to salvation, McBrien’s (1969)  Kingdom of God not the Church as absolute, and Hick’s (1987) Copernican revolution to renounce religious superiority.

Folk Personlaity

As shown in Figure 5. Maharlikhan spirituality merged with devotional personality merged results to a folk personality; devotional personality with global personality becomes a social-activist personality; and Maharlikhan personality with global personality becomes personalist personality.  The question of change in one’s personality may be viewed in the context creative fidelity (Johnston, 2000). Gonzalez (2002, p.4) supports such fidelity by being “faithful to the traditions of the Catholic Church and at the same time being responsive to the current issues of the time.”  On the other hand, Dyer, Gregersen and Christensen (2011) indicate that when creativity is applied to an existing reality, it becomes a disruptive innovation.  Spiritual change inevitably includes disruption of existing devotional practices and mainstream beliefs.

Philippine Maganda and Kalooban.

Francisco (2001) suggests that the Tagalog concept of loob subverts the medieval body and soul, matter and form framework of Aristotelian and Scholastic philosophy and theology. While loob is literally inside, it is related as an intermediary between body and soul.  In Filipino context the human person is understood in terms of triadic nexus of body, soul, and loob (Francisco, 2001). The Catechism for Filipino Catholics (2002) speaks of kalooban as a deep, positive spiritual value in accepting suffering, patience and long-suffering.

The closest to the inside of loob concept is Wilber’s inside-outside and individual-collective dimensions of consciousness.  His quadrants as dimensions of being-in-the world are most summarized as self (I), culture (we) and nature (it) and all of which have the inside-outside realities. He translates these three elements as art, morals, and science or the beautiful, the good and the true. The self, culture and nature are liberated together or else there is no liberation at all (Wilber, 2004).

According to Resurrection (2007, p,1), “Ang kagandahang loob madalas na ginagamit upang isalawaran and isang taong nagpapakita ng kabutihan sa kapwa ngunit wala pa itong malinaw na depinisyon. Sa literature, ito ay ang lahat ng kabutihang taglay ng isang tao.” In his qualitative study, he was able to make 3 domains and 12 categories and malasakit, pakikipagkapwa and kalinisang loob he considered foundation of kagandahang loob.

Jhai Mahtani (n.d.) applied kagandahang loob in the context of ‘pagmamahal sa di-dakila’ using 1 Peter 4: 9-11 in his pastoral lesson.  Here, kagandahang loob is considered a quality of the Christian soul, capable of malasakit and doing good for others, even if they are not one’s household or friend.

Kagandahang loob is linked to cardinal virtue of charity. Pe-Pua and Protacio-Marcelino (2000) in presenting kagandang loob as viewed by Virgilio Enriquez, do not give an in-depth discussion on the subject. They simply annotated it as ‘shared humanity’ and linked it as a socio-personal value.

The study of Rungduin and Rungduin (2007) indicated that forgiveness is related to loob values.  They consider forgiveness as “an act of showing kagandahan ng loob. People who forgive tend to exercise such value towards other people. Other related concepts that came out were gaan ng loob, bigat ng loob, and kababaang loob. These become indicative of the positive attributes given to those people who are forgiving. This could be explained by those positive attributes that have been associated with the act of forgiving others, such as being an open-minded and being understanding of other’s behavior and kababaang loob”  (Rungduin & Rungduin, 2007, p.29).

Jeremiah Reyes (2015) argues that Filipino virtue ethics is rooted in loob and kapwa.  In this regard, he mirrors  Wilber’s I-We and Inside-Outside consciousness quadrants. By using the theological framework of Thomas Aquinas, his views on loob and kapwa aligns him to many previous ethics and values relocator whose discipline has been honed by Western mainstream theological-scientific scholarship.  Thus, Reyes labels pre-Spanish Filipino culture as “Southeast Asian tribal and animist tradition mixed with a Spanish Catholic tradition for over three-hundred years.”  The multistream Western relocators of shamanistic traditions would have had different labels to describe ethnic culture.  The animistic concept has be upgraded from panetheism to pan(en)theism  (Lynch, 2007) as a form of non-judgmental view on ethnic culture.

Reyes’s loób focuses on the person’s “relational will” of the individual existentially linked with behavior towards kapwa. This is in contrast to Kintanar (1996) view that loob is an emotional state.  Further, Francisco’s (2001) loob is more than relational will or emotional state; he reads loob, from a Catholic theological viewpoint, as an intermediary between Aristotelian-Thomistic-Scholastic body and soul construct.  In understanding the human person, the loob is considered part and parcel of body and soul human configuration.

Reyes’ kapwa is literally translated as “other” or “other person” but he admits it is in a way untranslatable into English. He settles for emergence of kapwa as an emergence of pre-Spanish worldview and Christian amalgamation, accepting translation of local scholars as “shared self”, “shared identity”, or “self-in-the-other.” I use “together with the person.”

His kagandahang-Loób is literally translated as “beauty-of-will.” The beauty of the will in this context is determined by one’s relationship towards the kapwa. Again, the dominant Thomistic view of the rational self anchored on the will resurfaces in this definition.  And yet he admits that when someone who has an affective concern for others and the willingness to help them in times of need is a person with kagandahang-loób. The primacy of the will over the emotion has been a classical ethical and moral dictum in Thomistic theology. As such, Reyes identifies the loób as a “holistic and relational will” and as a “power of the soul.” In the process, he neglects role of the emotional as Kintanar advocates.  Thus, kagandahang loob becomes a value that is good, rather than a value that is beautiful.

Gaia Yesterday

According to Layne Redmond (1997, p.6), the concept of the eternal female was materialized through female goddess, a Divine Mother.  She says, “In Egypt the goddess was known as Hathor, Isis, Sekhmer, In Sumerian, Syro-Palestinian, and Cypriot cultures she was called Inna, Ishtar, Astarte, Astoreth, Anat, Aphrodite. In Anatolia, Asia Minor, Crete, Greece and Rome she was Cybele, Rhea, Demter, Artiemis, Anadine, and Persephone.  All these historical goddesses sprang from an architype Great Goddess of the Paleolithic Age, when cultures throughout the European and western Asian world worshipped forms of Divine Mother.”  When the Greeks colonized Asia Minor, they brought home with them the cult of Cybele and reintroduced the ancient Greek Mother of Minoan-Mycenaen tradition.  The Greeks had known her as Rhea or Gaia, the Mother of the Gods. Rhea of Cretan original and scholars agree that she and Cybele are the same goddess (Richmond, 1997, p.121-122).

Gaea was the Greek goddess of the earth; she was both mother and wife to Uranus, or Heaven, as well as mother of Cronus, a Titan.  According to Greek poet Hesiod, she was the mother of all 12 Titans, as well as of the Furies and the Cyclopes.  She may have originated as a mother goddess worshipped in pre-Helenic Greece (Merriam-Webster, 2003).  The Greek spelling is Gaea but modern feminist revivalists use Gaia. Under the Olympian gods of classical mythology, Gaea is identified with Eros (Cupid, Amor), god of sexual love, who both came out of Chaos (New York Times, 2004).

Eros is supposed to possess a deeper mystical significance as the primordial power of creation itself. The Pythagorean and Orphic mystery schools invoked him as Eletherious, the Liberators and Protogonos, the luminous and genderless first born of the gods, who arose out of the empty void Chaos to create harmonious order and beauty of the Cosmos. EnlightenNext Magazine (2009) reinterprets Eros in the light of Darwinian philosophers like Charles Sanders Pierce and Alfred North Whitehead who saw Eros as “the creative force that drives the evolutionary process.  Andres Cohen (2009) asserts that when one consciously identifies with the evolutionary impulse, at the highest level, each one of us is “actually not separate from the energy and intelligence that originally inspired the creative process” which is Eros.

According to Margaret Wheatley (1999, p.82-83), “In the origins of Western thought (600 BCE), she appears in Hesiod as Gaia who reaches into the void that is Chaos and pulls forth life.  It is Gaia who works with the creative impulse that is Eros and creates the world.  She is the created universe, the mother of all like, the great partner of chaos and creativity. In modern science, she is planet Earth, a living being that creates for herself the conditions that nourish and sustain life.  And in this millennial era, Gaia is us [women].

Gaian myth is extremely important because myths “serve as a reminder of the wonders and mystery of the universe and how these are experienced; they have a cosmological dimension of science in enlightening us how our world came to be; they have a sociological function which support and validate world social order; and they have a pedagogical function on how to live a human lifetime under any circumstances” (Campbell, 1991; 1986).

In the tradition of shamanism, Walsh (2007, p.59) interprets Campbell’s mythical functionality: “Their development function is to guide individuals through live stages.  Their social function is to support the social structure and offer a shared understanding of life and relationship.  Their cosmological and religious roles are to provide an image and understanding of the cosmos and of humankind’s role and responsibility in it.”

Rediscovering Gaia of old forces the ethical and moral scholar to somehow to likewise rediscover the ancient tradition of shamanism.  They understood the harmony and beauty of the mind, body, and spirit in relation with others, the earth and the cosmos. Shamans have a sacred where they find meaning and power.  In sacred space one “intentionally changes the environment to be one of harmony, peace and beauty (Samuels & Lane, 2003, p.53).  They see light and beauty and let others see that vision. They see themselves as beautiful; they are within beauty. Thus, the healing action of the shamans is powered by beauty.

To the Greek mentality, it was an attribute of beauty. Both ancients and moderns believed that there is a close association in mathematics between beauty and truth. The Greeks believed there to be three “ingredients” to beauty: symmetry, proportion, and harmony. Beauty was an object of love and something that was to be imitated and reproduced in their lives, architecture, education (paideia), and politics. They judged life by this mentality.

Aristotle says that when the good person chooses to act virtuously, he does so for the sake of the “kalon”—a word that can mean “beautiful,” “noble,” or “fine.”. This term indicates that Aristotle sees in ethical activity an attraction that is comparable to the beauty of well-crafted artifacts, including such artifacts as poetry, music, and drama. He draws this analogy in his discussion of the mean, when he says that every craft tries to produce a work from which nothing should be taken away and to which nothing further should be added (Nicomachean Ethics. 1106b5–14).

Gaia Today

Some advocates of progressive spirituality in the 21st century describe the process of “the divine spirit…seeking to sustain and guide the ongoing development of the cosmos…in terms of working with the spirit of Gaia” (Lynch, 2007, p.45-46).  Thus, the study and inspiration of Gaia is very much alive and Gaia in mythology yesterday is science (Drummond, n.d.) and spirituality today (Lynch, 2007).

Bonewits and Bonewits (2007) trace the gaea thesis to Oberon Zell-Ravenheart in 1970. The thesis states that Mother Earth is a living being composed of the whole biosphere. The gaia hypothesis or gaian theory and principles were elaborated by James Lovelock (1972) and Margulis (1998). According to Grauds and Childers (2005), “[W]hile plants, animals, and humans have their own conscious life and experience; they both partake of, and are transcended by, Gaia’s consciousness.

Inherent in Gaia theory is the idea that biosphere, the atmosphere, the lithosphere and the hydrosphere maintain a homeostatic condition and the Earth is seen as a single living super being. The workings of Gaia, therefore, can be viewed as a study of the physiology of the Earth, where the atmosphere is the Earth’s lungs and circulatory system,  the oceans and rivers are the Earth’s blood, the land and the rocks are the Earth’s bones, and the living organisms like the plants and fungi are the Earth’s skin and  sensory system. All these are tied up to an infinitely complex network of feedback systems to maintain homeostasis. (Bonewits, 2003; Chamberlain, n.d.).

Gill Edwards (1995) connects Lovelock’s Gaian Hypothesis with shamanic wisdom.  She said, “According to shamanic wisdom, everything is alive.  Rocks and crystals are conscious beings – the ‘stone people’, a native Americans call them – albeit with a consciousness very different from our own; and the mineral kingdom can and does have impact upon us” (p.206).

Redmond (1997) spells out the disaster that has befallen us today because our civilization chose a tradition followed a male dominant worldview.  She says, “By divorcing ourselves from the natural world, we are doing violence to ourselves and to the planet.  The tradition that we inherited from warrior nomads who viewed the natural world as an infinite source of new pastures to exploit and abandon have led to rampant materialism. Even now when ecological crises have forces us to reassess our relations to the environment, politicians take steps to ‘protect’ our resources solely so that we may continue to exploit them….our culture persists in behaving as if nature exists to serve the desires of one species that values itself above all other.(Redmond, p.187).   In the spirit of Gaia, Vivianne Crowley (2001) suggests that we try to sense the divine presence in the natural world beneath the concrete of the streets, implying that the sacred natural order is primarily the non-human natural order.

James Twyman (2016) in his website says: “If there was ever a time for balance to occur between the Divine Masculine and Divine Feminine, it’s NOW. It’s easy to believe that such a dream is impossible. Just look at the world around us and you can point at countless examples of this. But the opposite is also true – there are so many examples of these two energies combining and working together, more than ever before. Maybe this means we’re on the verge of a major breakthrough, first in consciousness then in form.  This is the subject of May 6, 2016  conference call with James Twyman, Gary Zukav, Dr. Jude Currivan and Dr. Maki Saionji Kawamura in a live webinar entitled Soul of WoMen: Awakening the Divine Feminine in the heart of humanity (http://fujideclaration.org/soul-of-women-webinar/#sthash.7oz50kRQ.dpuf).


The challenge to the 21st century engineers is to expand from physics to metaphysics and from religiosity to spirituality because spirituality is the seat of our personality.  The second challenge is for our women engineers to accept their key role in the 21t century as the source of feminine energy which is so much critical in a world that has used force and violence as a way of life.  The leadershift is taking place now and the lady engineers must take on their role as babaylan in healing the wounds of society, in inspiring those who are frustrated and find it hopeless to go against the tide of negative energy that swallows our personality day-in and day-out.  The third challenge is for our male engineers to become asogs.  Learn to practice the soft values of nature and nurture as exemplified by our opposite counterpart.  It means expand your power from rational and logical perspective to an intuitive and gut-feel approach to problem-solving and decision-making as leaders in the engineering profession.  Together the male and female energy amongst you will ignite a new world of the 21st century where we will dance to the beat of the drums and create a world of peace and harmony.


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